|Home > Security Bulletins > S2-003|
XWork ParameterInterceptors bypass allows OGNL statement execution
Who should read this
All Struts 2 developers
Impact of vulnerability
Remote server context manipulation
Maximum security rating
Struts 2.0.0 - Struts 184.108.40.206
Original JIRA Ticket
Meder Kydyraliev, Google Security Team
OGNL provides, among other features, extensive expression evaluation capabilities (http://www.ognl.org/2.6.9/Documentation/html/LanguageGuide/expressionEvaluation.html). The vulnerability allows a malicious user to bypass the '#'-usage protection built into the ParametersInterceptor, thus being able to manipulate server side context objects.
So, for instance, to set #session.user to '0wn3d' the following parameter name can be used:
('\u0023' + 'session\'user\'')(unused)=0wn3d
which will look as follows once URL encoded:
As of XWork 2.0.5, being part of the Struts 220.127.116.11 release, the ParameterInterceptor was changed to provide a whitelist mechanism for acceptable, non malicious parameter names. Therefore, in the example above, the given parameter will be ignored. Nevertheless there are still cases where the whitelist mechanism does not prevent the context from being manipulated, thus XWork 2.0.5 and Struts 18.104.22.168 do not fix the issue satisfactorily.
As of XWork 2.0.6, being part of the Struts 2.0.12 release, the ParametersInterceptor applies stack changes to a copy of the original value stack, for which context parameters which might be subject to manipulations are cleared beforehand.
You can either obtain a copy of the released XWork 2.0.6 jar as a drop in replacement for the XWork 2.0.4 / 2.0.5 jar used in Struts 2.0.9 and above, or download a full release of Struts 2.0.12, which contains the corrected XWork library.