Apache Struts 2 Documentation > Home > Guides > Core Developers Guide > Configuration Files > struts-default.xml
Added by Cuong Tran, last edited by Ted Husted on Oct 09, 2006  (view change)

A base configuration file named struts-default.xml is included in the struts2.jar file. This file is automatically included into struts.xml file to provide the standard configuration settings without having to copy them.

To exclude the struts-default.xml or to provide your own version, see the struts.configuration.files setting in struts.properties.

The contents of struts-default.xml are here:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!--
/*
 * $Id$
 *
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
 * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
 * distributed with this work for additional information
 * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
 * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
 * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
 * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
 * software distributed under the License is distributed on an
 * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
 * KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
 * specific language governing permissions and limitations
 * under the License.
 */
-->

<!DOCTYPE struts PUBLIC
    "-//Apache Software Foundation//DTD Struts Configuration 2.0//EN"
    "http://struts.apache.org/dtds/struts-2.0.dtd">

<struts>
    <bean class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.ObjectFactory" name="xwork" />
    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.ObjectFactory" name="struts" class="org.apache.struts2.impl.StrutsObjectFactory" />

    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionProxyFactory" name="xwork" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionProxyFactory"/>
    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionProxyFactory" name="struts" class="org.apache.struts2.impl.StrutsActionProxyFactory"/>

    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ObjectTypeDeterminer" name="tiger" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.GenericsObjectTypeDeterminer"/>
    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ObjectTypeDeterminer" name="notiger" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.DefaultObjectTypeDeterminer"/>
    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ObjectTypeDeterminer" name="struts" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.DefaultObjectTypeDeterminer"/>

    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.ActionMapper" name="struts" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.DefaultActionMapper" />
    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.ActionMapper" name="composite" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.CompositeActionMapper" />
    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.ActionMapper" name="restful" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.RestfulActionMapper" />
    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.ActionMapper" name="restful2" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.Restful2ActionMapper" />

    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.multipart.MultiPartRequest" name="struts" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.multipart.JakartaMultiPartRequest" scope="default" optional="true"/>
    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.multipart.MultiPartRequest" name="jakarta" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.multipart.JakartaMultiPartRequest" scope="default" optional="true" />

    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.views.TagLibrary" name="s" class="org.apache.struts2.views.DefaultTagLibrary" />

    <bean class="org.apache.struts2.views.freemarker.FreemarkerManager" name="struts" optional="true"/>
    <bean class="org.apache.struts2.views.velocity.VelocityManager" name="struts" optional="true" />

    <bean class="org.apache.struts2.components.template.TemplateEngineManager" />
    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.components.template.TemplateEngine" name="ftl" class="org.apache.struts2.components.template.FreemarkerTemplateEngine" />
    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.components.template.TemplateEngine" name="vm" class="org.apache.struts2.components.template.VelocityTemplateEngine" />
    <bean type="org.apache.struts2.components.template.TemplateEngine" name="jsp" class="org.apache.struts2.components.template.JspTemplateEngine" />

    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.XWorkConverter" name="xwork1" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.XWorkConverter" />
    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.XWorkConverter" name="struts" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.AnnotationXWorkConverter" />

    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.TextProvider" name="xwork1" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.TextProviderSupport" />
    <bean type="com.opensymphony.xwork2.TextProvider" name="struts" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.TextProviderSupport" />

	<bean type="org.apache.struts2.components.UrlRenderer" name="struts" class="org.apache.struts2.components.ServletUrlRenderer"/>
	
    <!--  Only have static injections -->
    <bean class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.ObjectFactory" static="true" />
    <bean class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.XWorkConverter" static="true" />
    <bean class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.OgnlValueStack" static="true" />
    <bean class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.Dispatcher" static="true" />
    <bean class="org.apache.struts2.components.Include" static="true" />
    <bean class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.FilterDispatcher" static="true" />
    <bean class="org.apache.struts2.views.util.ContextUtil" static="true" />
    <bean class="org.apache.struts2.views.util.UrlHelper" static="true" />

    <package name="struts-default" abstract="true">
        <result-types>
            <result-type name="chain" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionChainResult"/>
            <result-type name="dispatcher" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ServletDispatcherResult" default="true"/>
            <result-type name="freemarker" class="org.apache.struts2.views.freemarker.FreemarkerResult"/>
            <result-type name="httpheader" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.HttpHeaderResult"/>
            <result-type name="redirect" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ServletRedirectResult"/>
            <result-type name="redirectAction" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ServletActionRedirectResult"/>
            <result-type name="stream" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.StreamResult"/>
            <result-type name="velocity" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.VelocityResult"/>
            <result-type name="xslt" class="org.apache.struts2.views.xslt.XSLTResult"/>
            <result-type name="plainText" class="org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.PlainTextResult" />
        </result-types>

        <interceptors>
            <interceptor name="alias" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.AliasInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="autowiring" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.spring.interceptor.ActionAutowiringInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="chain" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ChainingInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="conversionError" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.StrutsConversionErrorInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="createSession" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.CreateSessionInterceptor" />
            <interceptor name="debugging" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.debugging.DebuggingInterceptor" />
            <interceptor name="externalRef" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ExternalReferencesInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="execAndWait" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ExecuteAndWaitInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="exception" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ExceptionMappingInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="fileUpload" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="i18n" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.I18nInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="logger" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.LoggingInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="modelDriven" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ModelDrivenInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="scopedModelDriven" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="params" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="prepare" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.PrepareInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="staticParams" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.StaticParametersInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="scope" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ScopeInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="servletConfig" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ServletConfigInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="sessionAutowiring" class="org.apache.struts2.spring.interceptor.SessionContextAutowiringInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="timer" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.TimerInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="token" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.TokenInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="tokenSession" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.TokenSessionStoreInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="validation" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.validation.AnnotationValidationInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="workflow" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.DefaultWorkflowInterceptor"/>
            <interceptor name="store" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.MessageStoreInterceptor" />
            <interceptor name="checkbox" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.CheckboxInterceptor" />
            <interceptor name="profiling" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ProfilingActivationInterceptor" />
            <interceptor name="roles" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.RolesInterceptor" />
            <interceptor name="jsonValidation" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.validation.JSONValidationInterceptor" />
            <interceptor name="annotationWorkflow" class="com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.annotations.AnnotationWorkflowInterceptor" />

            <!-- Basic stack -->
            <interceptor-stack name="basicStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="exception"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="servletConfig"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="prepare"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="checkbox"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="params"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="conversionError"/>
            </interceptor-stack>

            <!-- Sample validation and workflow stack -->
            <interceptor-stack name="validationWorkflowStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="basicStack"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="validation"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="workflow"/>
            </interceptor-stack>
            
            <!-- Sample JSON validation stack -->
            <interceptor-stack name="jsonValidationWorkflowStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="basicStack"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="validation">
                    <param name="excludeMethods">input,back,cancel</param>
                </interceptor-ref>
                <interceptor-ref name="jsonValidation"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="workflow"/>
            </interceptor-stack>

            <!-- Sample file upload stack -->
            <interceptor-stack name="fileUploadStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="fileUpload"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="basicStack"/>
            </interceptor-stack>

            <!-- Sample model-driven stack  -->
            <interceptor-stack name="modelDrivenStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="modelDriven"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="basicStack"/>
            </interceptor-stack>

            <!-- Sample action chaining stack -->
            <interceptor-stack name="chainStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="chain"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="basicStack"/>
            </interceptor-stack>

            <!-- Sample i18n stack -->
            <interceptor-stack name="i18nStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="i18n"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="basicStack"/>
            </interceptor-stack>

            <!-- An example of the params-prepare-params trick. This stack
                 is exactly the same as the defaultStack, except that it
                 includes one extra interceptor before the prepare interceptor:
                 the params interceptor.

                 This is useful for when you wish to apply parameters directly
                 to an object that you wish to load externally (such as a DAO
                 or database or service layer), but can't load that object
                 until at least the ID parameter has been loaded. By loading
                 the parameters twice, you can retrieve the object in the
                 prepare() method, allowing the second params interceptor to
                 apply the values on the object. -->
            <interceptor-stack name="paramsPrepareParamsStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="exception"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="alias"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="params"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="servletConfig"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="prepare"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="i18n"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="chain"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="modelDriven"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="fileUpload"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="checkbox"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="staticParams"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="params"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="conversionError"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="validation">
                    <param name="excludeMethods">input,back,cancel</param>
                </interceptor-ref>
                <interceptor-ref name="workflow">
                    <param name="excludeMethods">input,back,cancel</param>
                </interceptor-ref>
            </interceptor-stack>

            <!-- A complete stack with all the common interceptors in place.
                 Generally, this stack should be the one you use, though it
                 may do more than you need. Also, the ordering can be
                 switched around (ex: if you wish to have your servlet-related
                 objects applied before prepare() is called, you'd need to move
                 servlet-config interceptor up.

                 This stack also excludes from the normal validation and workflow
                 the method names input, back, and cancel. These typically are
                 associated with requests that should not be validated.
                 -->
            <interceptor-stack name="defaultStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="exception"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="alias"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="servletConfig"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="prepare"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="i18n"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="chain"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="debugging"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="profiling"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="scopedModelDriven"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="modelDriven"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="fileUpload"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="checkbox"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="staticParams"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="params">
                  <param name="excludeParams">dojo\..*</param>
                </interceptor-ref>
                <interceptor-ref name="conversionError"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="validation">
                    <param name="excludeMethods">input,back,cancel,browse</param>
                </interceptor-ref>
                <interceptor-ref name="workflow">
                    <param name="excludeMethods">input,back,cancel,browse</param>
                </interceptor-ref>
            </interceptor-stack>

            <!-- The completeStack is here for backwards compatibility for
                 applications that still refer to the defaultStack by the
                 old name -->
            <interceptor-stack name="completeStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="defaultStack"/>
            </interceptor-stack>

            <!-- Sample execute and wait stack.
                 Note: execAndWait should always be the *last* interceptor. -->
            <interceptor-stack name="executeAndWaitStack">
                <interceptor-ref name="execAndWait">
                    <param name="excludeMethods">input,back,cancel</param>
                </interceptor-ref>
                <interceptor-ref name="defaultStack"/>
                <interceptor-ref name="execAndWait">
                    <param name="excludeMethods">input,back,cancel</param>
                </interceptor-ref>
            </interceptor-stack>

       </interceptors>

        <default-interceptor-ref name="defaultStack"/>
    </package>

</struts>

This file defines all of the default bundled results and interceptors and many interceptor stacks which you can use either as-is or as a basis for your own application-specific interceptor stacks. Notice the name of the package is "struts-default".