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Key features of the framework include:


  • Pluggable framework architecture that allows request lifecycles to be customized for each action.
  • Flexible validation framework that allows validation rules to be decoupled from action code.
  • Hierarchical approach to internationalization that simplifies localizing applications.
  • Automatic type conversion that transparently maps values from HTTP to native Java data objects, solving one of the most tedious efforts when creating web applications.
  • Integrated dependency injection engine that manages component lifecycle and dependencies.
  • Modular configuration files that use packages and namespaces to simplify managing large projects with hundreds of actions.
  • Java 5 annotations that reduce configuration overhead. (Java 1.4 is the minimum platform.)


  • Reusable user interface tags that allow for easy component-oriented development using themes and templates. Bundled tags ranges from simple text fields to advanced tags like date pickers and tree views.
  • JSTL-compatible expression language (OGNL) that exposes properties on multiple objects as if they were a single JavaBean.
  • Pluggable Result Types that support multiple view technologies, including JSP, FreeMarker, Velocity, PDF, and JasperReports.
  • Optional AJAX theme that simplifes creating interactive web applications.
  • Optional Interceptor plugins that can execute long-running queries in the background, prevent multiple form submissions, or handle custom security schemes.